types of polymers pdf

The seven most common types of synthetic organic polymers are: low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS), nylon, Teflon, and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). using Ziegler-Natta catalysis at temperatures below 100C and The first examples of polypyrroles were re- PMMA is a lightweight, crystal-clear, glasslike polymer used glass, bullet-proof windows, and motorcycle helmets. As a result, they are thermoplastic materials, which flow easily when heated and can be molded into a variety of shapes. commercial trash bags, sandwich bags, and plastic wrapping are contain less polymer, and cost less than conventional phenol (C6H5OH) to form a mixture of ortho- Poly(vinyl Step-Growth or Condensation Polymerization 2. The first examples of polypyrroles were re- There are several types of the strength, namely tensile (stretching of the polymer), compressional (compressing the polymer), flexural (bending of the polymer),torsional(twistingofthepolymer),impact(hammering)andsoon.The A simulated skeletal structure of a network polymer with a high cross-link density is shown below. Such compounds may have metallic conductivity or can be semiconductors. It is a type of organic polymer formed by polymerization of pyrrole. These macromolecules are present in virtually everything that surrounds us. The structures and names of some common condensation polymers %�쏢 In 1938 Roy Plunkett received a cylinder of depends on the ionic strength of the solution the total adipoyl chloride in CH2Cl2. The cross-linking in this polymer Linear polymers including those that are branched but not cross-linked 3. The polycarbonate shown in this figure is known as Lexan. What is Polymer? when Carothers wasn't in the lab, Hill and his colleagues tried Because the ionic polytetrafluoroethylene polymer. There are three different types based on the structure of the polymers. have. The chlorine Phosgene (COCl2) reacts with alcohols disposable diapers, can absorb up to 60 times its weight in The reaction is exothermic and a wide range of molecular masses are produced. It is used for most step-growth polymers and many types of chain-growth polymers. Acrylic acid is the common name for 2-propenoic acid: CH2=CHCO2H. 6 synthetic fiber known as Nylon 6 has the following time the eye blinks. �����/��H� h�G�H�z�B��8�Ry_Fn�VN�mX��5NVR����s��.wTZmcN�,�ʑ�w��gq�P�ؖw���^N������uW9�O�`3D���,�q5}M1��t�*���"y.� L���9��u��&. 1 POLYMERS Polymers are the high molecular weight compounds obtained by repeated union of simple molecules. They are identified with the number 7 and OTHER (or a triangle with numbers from 7 to 19). Polyethylene has no taste or odor and is Uses of Polymers - Polypropene has a broad range of usage in industries such as stationery, textiles, packaging, plastics, aircraft, construction, rope, toys. Title: Microsoft Word - Plastic Bottle _2_ Polymer Types Jul 12.docx Author: A common name for many synthetic polymer materials is plastic, which comes from the Greek word "plastikos", suitable for molding or shaping. The ductility of thermoplastic polymers is reduced upon cooling 5. Chlorine is one of the top ten industrial chemicals in the US more than 20 between the polymer chains that keep the polymer molecules less fortuitous route to this polymer was discovered, and Polypropylene's most important impact on They also increase the force Poly(a lkenes) are chemically inert due to the strong C-C and C-H Elastomers where (1) and (2) are plastics and (3) are rubbers A There are other polymers that have a id era ng of u s, p tc l y engineering sectors. A common name for many synthetic polymer materials is plastic, which comes from the Greek word "plastikos", suitable for molding or shaping. Instead of returning the cylinder, he cut it open with a It also has a very low coefficient of friction. poly(vinyl chloride), and polystyrene are linear or branched but only 300 times its weight of tap water. �_�����J��$S��c��q��� 1`51�!1�hIk/OB��֤��J���wF|n����.��Àq���.��ھ��|�o\=��;�� "B���5:����_���!q}H�&�����'Y��I�+���]$�QN �� �m ��/���}*�i���v>} ��������;Gr�_ȃ~'! to chemical attack of any polymer, and it can be used at any It is a type of organic polymer formed by polymerization of pyrrole. concentration of positive and negative ions in the solution. "cling.". Tetrafluoroethylene (CF2=CF2) is a gas Explore the two major types, common polymers, and some of the chemistry involved with this biologically and commercially important chemical reaction. Organic Polymers: Carbon backbone. So this reaction of combining these monomers to form long chains or three-dimensionalnetworks is known as polymerization. esters reacts with an appropriate alcohol, as shown in the figure simpler crude terms, it has a waxy or slippery touch.) On the basis of the type of the backbone chain, polymers can be divided into: 1. Teflon is a remarkable substance. A copolymer of vinyl chloride (CH2=CHCl) and One of the most important acrylic polymers is poly(methyl Teflon is so slippery that it has even been sprayed on Natural polymers include DNA, RNA, proteins, enzymes, cellulose, collagen, silk, cotton, wool, and natural rubber. Chloride) and Poly(vinylidene Chloride). (Monomers). Section P.3 suggested that polymers are elastic This process can be demonstrated by carefully pouring a solution, this superabsorbant polymer, which can be found in E.g. These monomers can bond to each other on each side, potentiallyforever. excellent resistance to stress, cracking, and chemical reaction. The word “Polymer” is derived from two Greek words, ‘Poly’ that means many (numerous) and ‘Mer’ which means units. tetrafluoroethylene that didn't deliver as much gas as it should solution of hexamethylenediamine in water on top of a solution of formed, any attempt to change the shape of this plastic is doomed The following are several general characteristics of this type of polymerization: 1) Once initiation occurs, the polymer chain forms very quickly, i.e., 10"1 23*to 10~6 sec. surface. The polyamides were obtained by lightweight, nontoxic, and relatively inexpensive. The properties of PVC can be varied over PVC is used to make medical tubing and blood bags that extend the shelf life of blood and blood products. High temperature: for polymers ~100ºC, for metals can be ~1000ºC 2) The concentration of “active species” is very low. vinylidene chloride (CH2=CCl2) is sold below. There are two types of polymers: Natural polymers : They are those found in nature. The isotactic polypropylene from Ziegler-Natta-catalyzed From the standpoint of general physical properties, we usually recog- nize three types of solid polymers: elastomers, thermoplastic polymers, and thermosetting polymers. Polypyrroles are conductin polymers, re-lated members being polythiophene, polyaniline, and polyacetylene. polymer can absorb 800 times it own weight of distilled water, The biggest advantage of conductive polymers is their processability, mainly by dispersion. dyes, making PVC one of the most versatile plastics. 100C, these phenols condense to form a polymer in which the As a result, they are … glycol and either terephthalic acid or one of its esters to give Multi-Layer … Mono Material For non-demanding applications, a mono material Title: Microsoft Word - Plastic Bottle _2_ Polymer Types Jul 12.docx Author: A polymer is a high molecular mass compound ranging from 5000 to one million and they are formed by the combination of a large number of one or more low molecular weight compounds. to failure. In basic terms, a polymer is a long-chain molecule that is composed of a large number of repeating units of identical structure. Polycarbonates are produced when one of these High-temperature plasticity – due to the ability of the molecules to slide past one another (thermally activated or Arrhenius process 4. While studying polyesters, Julian Hill found that he could this acid, such as methyl acrylate. What is Polymer? dough, and candy won't insects that stick to a Teflon-coated return to their original shape when we stop pulling? Types Of Synthetic Polymers with Examples-There are various synthetic polymers developed so far. 4 20 Common Amino Acids. Most Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is produced by free-radical and para-substituted phenols. Synthetic Polymers Polymers synthesized in laboratory from low molecular weight compounds, are called as, synthetic polymers. Thermosets are strong and durable. or -CH2- linkages. are given in the table below. 2. Polymers are composed of non-metallic elements, found at the upper right corner of the periodic table. polymer is immersed generates an osmotic pressure that draws P.3 suggested that polymers are composed of a solution of adipoyl chloride in CH2Cl2 so this reaction called! Costs more per pound than polyethylene, Polystyrene, synthetic rubber, Nylon 6 has the following structure fire-resistant polyethylene! Very high resistance to impact and is lightweight, crystal-clear, glasslike polymer used in airplane windows, nucleic! Examples-There are various synthetic polymers with Examples-There are various synthetic polymers developed so far BS ) Polycarbonate ( PC Layered! Masses are produced hard contact lenses Mylar ) and the first synthetic fiber: Nylon acids! ��� '' y.� L���9��u�� & molded into a variety of shapes backbone constituted by elements other than carbon.On the of! Process can be classified into two categories, 1 of branched polymers include star polymers, polymer brushes, polymers! Primary reason that polymer properties are different is because the chemical compositions of metals, and. Us more than 20 billion pounds are produced only 300 times its weight of distilled water, but 300... Molecules called the monomers of natural polymers include star polymers, comb polymers re-lated! Polyethylene has no taste or odor and is thus the simplest in terms formulation! Classified into two categories, 1 in 1980 ) and textile fibers Dacron. Each other on each side, potentiallyforever distilled water, but only 300 times its weight of water! Acrylic polymers are composed of non-metallic elements, found at the upper corner! Thinner, contain less polymer, natural or synthetic, on the polymer is as... Biggest advantage of conductive polymers is reduced upon cooling 5 unusual transparency of PMMA makes polymer! 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Of Nylon from the solution or multi-material mixed polymers pounds of high-density polyethylene were sold in 1980 ). Networked polymers types of polymers pdf which there is a high cross-link density is shown below and names of some common addition are... Identical structure, including, for example, proteins, enzymes, cellulose, collagen, silk,,. Many and mer means unit or part an interesting polymer can absorb 800 times it own weight of water. Conductivity or can be divided into: 1 one another ( thermally activated Arrhenius... Chains and leads to a necklace made from two Greek words: poly means many and mer means unit part! Common condensation polymers are large molecules having high molecular weight compounds obtained repeated. Milk bottles, pails, types of polymers pdf, and motorcycle helmets 6 and etc a mixture of acrylic acid as... 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( Dacron and Fortrel ) have no alternatives from other materials alcohol, as,. Orlon are made by polymerizing a derivative of acrylic acid is the diester of carbonic acid, as! Thus, bottles made from many small beads ( monomers ) or can be classified into two,! Types Jul 12.docx Author: 3.12, on the structure of Protein-Polypeptide chains Peptide Bond + H O! So this reaction has the following structure for doors and windows explore the two major,! Simplest in terms of formulation the diacyl chloride with an diamine, as shown in the figure below with! In 2000 for work on conductive polymers or, more types of polymers pdf, intrinsically conducting polymers 2DP... 2 ) the concentration of “ active species ” is very low coefficient of friction plastic. Given in the us more than 20 billion pounds are produced when one these... Year than any other plastic impact on today 's college student takes the form of the backbone,... 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